The History of Music
Music was with man probably almost from the beginning, because of the observation of the primitive tribes we can state that music is the most basic and existential necessity of a human being. Every culture, both modern and ancient have its own music, even if it's very primitive or far from today's standards. In the music practice were used not only human voices but also objects, which were giving the sounds of the definite or indefinite height. These objects usually gave only the one sound- they were different whistles, animal horns, strings, primitive percussion instruments. But later people started to invent new instruments, which were giving more than one sound - in the whistle were drilled holes, and that's how the pipe was created. Probably from the beginning of the origin of music, it was divided in two different trends: sacrum and profanum. This division survived in almost unchanged form to this day. The sacrum music was connected with faith, cult. This type of music was played during some important ceremonies connected with worshiping the gods, and only priests or people important in the social hierarchy had an access to its secrets. This sphere was treated seriously, it was being developed, so it was coming more and more professional. The profanum (secular) sphere concerned everyday life, not connected with cult and spirit. This music was impulsive, it reflected human joy and sadness. We can guess, that the inspiration was mainly drawn from the sounds of nature. As the music was developing people noticed the necessity of unifying the height of sounds from different instruments, so turned up a problem how to fix all used height of sounds that is the sound system.
One of the first techniques, which were formed in ancient times, was the heterophony, the primitive polyphonic technique, which involves the simultaneous performance of melody and its variants by different voices. In the music of the higher level we meet the important feature - syncretism. It means the simultaneity of three spheres of art: music, poetry and dance. This situation is necessary because none of these spheres is formed enough to exist independently.
The scientist, who created the first accurate bases of theoretical determining the height of sounds, was Pythagoras (6th century BC).
1. What is the music philosophy?
"To hear the music is not enough, one should make it understandable"
In the systematic philosophy music was seen from the outside, from the out-of-musical point of view. Music was being subordinated to some basic concepts, it was seen like the part of culture. In the history was little reflection which was trying to examine the music bases. Music needs the musical explanation, it should be understood by itself. We ought to talk about theoretical bases of music, investigate its works and try to understand them.
Professional music knows the form, hears phrase, motif, and finally the particular sounds. Composing means through centuries arranging the "ready" sounds in the higher organized structures. Till the 20th century composing "under" this level didn't exist - mainly because it was simple impossible. One of the main changes in the metamusic reflection in 20th century was paying attention to the music building material, which is sound. This descent to the lower level from the traditional composition opened new opportunities to music. Usually dictionaries give two definitions of sound: sound is an acoustic wave, which splits up in a springy medium, the second- the hearing sensation caused by this wave. Man has the ability to distinguish the different sound features. These are: the height, the length of time and loudness and the tone quality. Composing can lean on manipulation with this elements heard by our ears. For loudness (volume of sound) is responsible the wave amplitude, and for the height of sound - the wave frequency. The problem appears with the tone quality. As far as the first three elements we can measure quantitatively and compare with themselves, the tone quality seems to not having this feature.
The characteristic of selected music styles:
gospel song words
Often the person, who sings gospel direct her words straight to God, like it is in a conversation between people. The word gospel was created from the two words God and spell, which we can understand as "God speaks". Previously this kind of music was called spirituals from the word spirit. The real gospel music is the food for soul. Gospel music had the influence on almost every kind of music, blues, hip-hop. Nowadays it's being discovered anew.
lyric song words
are oriented to illustrate emotions, not picture, and this is their big advantage. Music is the spirit of poetry, uninspired becomes dry, deprived of the lively beauty.
country song words
talk about everyday matters of ordinary people (love, work, fun, financial troubles, problems with children etc.). They originate from the USA, the kind of light music. Originally simple, based on three-chord scheme and instruments, which consists of the acoustic guitar, the violin and simple drums. Later it made more complicated instruments, and its form became more sophisticated. Country compositions are usually the dynamic, simple songs based on the rock'n roll scheme and the lyric ballades, often in the rhythm of waltz.
christian song words
express the artist's feelings to relatives, not always to God, the main criterion of division of all Christian music is the fact where it comes from. Let's pay attention to popular music, which also contains the songs with profound thoughts. I think here about Emy Grant, probably the first Christian music star. She recorded the album "Baby, baby". In her songs she sings about the common human problems - about her love to husband, about conflicts with him, about everything which is the part of her life. However they are not trivial stories or complaining, she shows how she copes with these problems, and how it hurts.